PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS

1.1 TODO LIST 1.4 
2. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 
2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.1 
2.1.1 Ladder Logic 2.1 
2.1.2 Programming 2.6 
2.1.3 PLC Connections 2.10 
2.1.4 Ladder Logic Inputs 2.11 
2.1.5 Ladder Logic Outputs 2.12 
2.2 A CASE STUDY 2.13 
2.3 SUMMARY 2.14 
2.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 2.15 
2.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 2.15 
2.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 2.16 
3. PLC HARDWARE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 
3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.1 
3.2 INPUTS AND OUTPUTS 3.2 
3.2.1 Inputs 3.3 
3.2.2 Output Modules 3.7 
3.3 RELAYS 3.13 
3.4 A CASE STUDY 3.14 
3.5 ELECTRICAL WIRING DIAGRAMS 3.15 
3.5.1 JIC Wiring Symbols 3.17 
3.6 SUMMARY 3.21 
3.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 3.21 
3.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 3.24 
3.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 3.27 
4. LOGICAL SENSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 
4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.1 
4.2 SENSOR WIRING 4.1 
4.2.1 Switches 4.2 
4.2.2 Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL) 4.3 
4.2.3 Sinking/Sourcing 4.3 
4.2.4 Solid State Relays 4.10 
4.3 PRESENCE DETECTION 4.11 
4.3.1 Contact Switches 4.11 
4.3.2 Reed Switches 4.11 
4.3.3 Optical (Photoelectric) Sensors 4.12 
4.3.4 Capacitive Sensors 4.19 
4.3.5 Inductive Sensors 4.23 
4.3.6 Ultrasonic 4.25 
4.3.7 Hall Effect 4.25 
page ii 
4.3.8 Fluid Flow 4.26 
4.4 SUMMARY 4.26 
4.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 4.27 
4.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 4.30 
4.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 4.36 
5. LOGICAL ACTUATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 
5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.1 
5.2 SOLENOIDS 5.1 
5.3 VALVES 5.2 
5.4 CYLINDERS 5.4 
5.5 HYDRAULICS 5.6 
5.6 PNEUMATICS 5.8 
5.7 MOTORS 5.9 
5.8 COMPUTERS 5.10 
5.9 OTHERS 5.10 
5.10 SUMMARY 5.10 
5.11 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 5.11 
5.12 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 5.11 
5.13 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 5.12 
6. BOOLEAN LOGIC DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 
6.1 INTRODUCTION 6.1 
6.2 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA 6.1 
6.3 LOGIC DESIGN 6.6 
6.3.1 Boolean Algebra Techniques 6.13 
6.4 COMMON LOGIC FORMS 6.14 
6.4.1 Complex Gate Forms 6.14 
6.4.2 Multiplexers 6.15 
6.5 SIMPLE DESIGN CASES 6.17 
6.5.1 Basic Logic Functions 6.17 
6.5.2 Car Safety System 6.18 
6.5.3 Motor Forward/Reverse 6.18 
6.5.4 A Burglar Alarm 6.19 
6.6 SUMMARY 6.23 
6.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 6.24 
6.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 6.27 
6.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 6.37 
7. KARNAUGHMAPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 
7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.1 
7.2 SUMMARY 7.4 
7.3 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 7.5 
page iii 
7.4 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 7.11 
7.5 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 7.17 
8. PLC OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1 
8.1 INTRODUCTION 8.1 
8.2 OPERATION SEQUENCE 8.3 
8.2.1 The Input and Output Scans 8.4 
8.2.2 The Logic Scan 8.4 
8.3 PLC STATUS 8.6 
8.4 MEMORY TYPES 8.6 
8.5 SOFTWARE BASED PLCS 8.7 
8.6 SUMMARY 8.7 
8.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 8.8 
8.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 8.8 
8.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 8.9 
9. LATCHES, TIMERS, COUNTERS AND MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1 
9.1 INTRODUCTION 9.1 
9.2 LATCHES 9.2 
9.3 TIMERS 9.6 
9.4 COUNTERS 9.14 
9.5 MASTER CONTROL RELAYS (MCRs) 9.17 
9.6 INTERNAL RELAYS 9.19 
9.7 DESIGN CASES 9.20 
9.7.1 Basic Counters And Timers 9.20 
9.7.2 More Timers And Counters 9.21 
9.7.3 Deadman Switch 9.22 
9.7.4 Conveyor 9.23 
9.7.5 Accept/Reject Sorting 9.24 
9.7.6 Shear Press 9.26 
9.8 SUMMARY 9.27 
9.9 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 9.28 
9.10 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 9.32 
9.11 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 9.43 
10. STRUCTURED LOGIC DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 
10.1 INTRODUCTION 10.1 
10.2 PROCESS SEQUENCE BITS 10.2 
10.3 TIMING DIAGRAMS 10.6 
10.4 DESIGN CASES 10.9 
10.5 SUMMARY 10.9 
10.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 10.9 
10.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 10.10 
page iv 
10.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 10.14 
11. FLOWCHART BASED DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1 
11.1 INTRODUCTION 11.1 
11.2 BLOCK LOGIC 11.4 
11.3 SEQUENCE BITS 11.11 
11.4 SUMMARY 11.15 
11.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 11.15 
11.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 11.16 
11.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 11.26 
12. STATE BASED DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1 
12.1 INTRODUCTION 12.1 
12.1.1 State Diagram Example 12.4 
12.1.2 Conversion to Ladder Logic 12.7 
Block Logic Conversion 12.7 
State Equations 12.16 
State-Transition Equations 12.24 
12.2 SUMMARY 12.29 
12.3 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 12.29 
12.4 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 12.34 
12.5 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 12.49 
13. NUMBERS AND DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1 
13.1 INTRODUCTION 13.1 
13.2 NUMERICAL VALUES 13.2 
13.2.1 Binary 13.2 
Boolean Operations 13.5 
Binary Mathematics 13.6 
13.2.2 Other Base Number Systems 13.10 
13.2.3 BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) 13.11 
13.3 DATA CHARACTERIZATION 13.11 
13.3.1 ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) 
13.11 
13.3.2 Parity 13.14 
13.3.3 Checksums 13.15 
13.3.4 Gray Code 13.16 
13.4 SUMMARY 13.17 
13.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 13.17 
13.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 13.20 
13.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 13.23 
14. PLCMEMORY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1 
14.1 INTRODUCTION 14.1 
page v 
14.2 MEMORY ADDRESSES 14.1 
14.3 PROGRAM FILES 14.2 
14.4 DATA FILES 14.3 
14.4.1 User Bit Memory 14.9 
14.4.2 Timer Counter Memory 14.10 
14.4.3 PLC Status Bits (for PLC-5s and Micrologix) 14.12 
14.4.4 User Function Control Memory 14.13 
14.4.5 Integer Memory 14.14 
14.4.6 Floating Point Memory 14.14 
14.5 SUMMARY 14.14 
14.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 14.15 
14.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 14.15 
14.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 14.18 
15. LADDER LOGIC FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1 
15.1 INTRODUCTION 15.1 
15.2 DATA HANDLING 15.3 
15.2.1 Move Functions 15.3 
15.2.2 Mathematical Functions 15.5 
15.2.3 Conversions 15.10 
15.2.4 Array Data Functions 15.11 
Statistics 15.12 
Block Operations 15.13 
15.3 LOGICAL FUNCTIONS 15.15 
15.3.1 Comparison of Values 15.15 
15.3.2 Boolean Functions 15.21 
15.4 DESIGN CASES 15.22 
15.4.1 Simple Calculation 15.22 
15.4.2 For-Next 15.23 
15.4.3 Series Calculation 15.24 
15.4.4 Flashing Lights 15.25 
15.5 SUMMARY 15.25 
15.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 15.26 
15.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 15.28 
15.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 15.34 
16. ADVANCED LADDER LOGIC FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1 
16.1 INTRODUCTION 16.1 
16.2 LIST FUNCTIONS 16.1 
16.2.1 Shift Registers 16.1 
16.2.2 Stacks 16.3 
16.2.3 Sequencers 16.6 
16.3 PROGRAM CONTROL 16.9 
16.3.1 Branching and Looping 16.9 
page vi 
16.3.2 Fault Detection and Interrupts 16.14 
16.4 INPUT AND OUTPUT FUNCTIONS 16.18 
16.4.1 Immediate I/O Instructions 16.18 
16.4.2 Block Transfer Functions 16.20 
16.5 DESIGN TECHNIQUES 16.22 
16.5.1 State Diagrams 16.22 
16.6 DESIGN CASES 16.26 
16.6.1 If-Then 16.26 
16.6.2 Traffic Light 16.27 
16.7 SUMMARY 16.28 
16.8 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 16.29 
16.9 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 16.31 
16.10 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 16.40 
17. OPEN CONTROLLERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.1 
17.1 INTRODUCTION 17.1 
17.2 IEC 61131 17.2 
17.3 OPEN ARCHITECTURE CONTROLLERS 17.3 
17.4 SUMMARY 17.4 
17.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 17.4 
17.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 17.4 
17.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 17.4 
18. INSTRUCTION LIST PROGRAMMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1 
18.1 INTRODUCTION 18.1 
18.2 THE IEC 61131 VERSION 18.1 
18.3 THE ALLEN-BRADLEY VERSION 18.4 
18.4 SUMMARY 18.9 
18.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 18.10 
18.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 18.10 
18.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 18.10 
19. STRUCTURED TEXT PROGRAMMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1 
19.1 INTRODUCTION 19.1 
19.2 THE LANGUAGE 19.2 
19.3 SUMMARY 19.19 
19.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 19.20 
19.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 19.20 
19.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 19.20 
20. SEQUENTIAL FUNCTION CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1 
20.1 INTRODUCTION 20.1 
20.2 A COMPARISON OF METHODS 20.16 
page vii 
20.3 SUMMARY 20.16 
20.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 20.17 
20.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 20.18 
20.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 20.25 
21. FUNCTION BLOCK PROGRAMMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1 
21.1 INTRODUCTION 21.1 
21.2 CREATING FUNCTION BLOCKS 21.3 
21.3 DESIGN CASE 21.4 
21.4 SUMMARY 21.4 
21.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 21.5 
21.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 21.5 
21.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 21.5 
22. ANALOG INPUTS AND OUTPUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.1 
22.1 INTRODUCTION 22.1 
22.2 ANALOG INPUTS 22.2 
22.2.1 Analog Inputs With a PLC 22.9 
22.3 ANALOG OUTPUTS 22.13 
22.3.1 Analog Outputs With A PLC 22.16 
22.3.2 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Outputs 22.18 
22.3.3 Shielding 22.20 
22.4 DESIGN CASES 22.22 
22.4.1 Process Monitor 22.22 
22.5 SUMMARY 22.22 
22.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 22.23 
22.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 22.24 
22.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 22.29 
23. CONTINUOUS SENSORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.1 
23.1 INTRODUCTION 23.1 
23.2 INDUSTRIAL SENSORS 23.2 
23.2.1 Angular Displacement 23.3 
Potentiometers 23.3 
23.2.2 Encoders 23.4 
Tachometers 23.8 
23.2.3 Linear Position 23.8 
Potentiometers 23.8 
Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT)23.9 
Moire Fringes 23.11 
Accelerometers 23.12 
23.2.4 Forces and Moments 23.15 
Strain Gages 23.15 
Piezoelectric 23.18 
page viii 
23.2.5 Liquids and Gases 23.20 
Pressure 23.21 
Venturi Valves 23.22 
Coriolis Flow Meter 23.23 
Magnetic Flow Meter 23.24 
Ultrasonic Flow Meter 23.24 
Vortex Flow Meter 23.24 
Positive Displacement Meters 23.25 
Pitot Tubes 23.25 
23.2.6 Temperature 23.25 
Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTDs) 23.26 
Thermocouples 23.26 
Thermistors 23.28 
Other Sensors 23.30 
23.2.7 Light 23.30 
Light Dependant Resistors (LDR) 23.30 
23.2.8 Chemical 23.31 
pH 23.31 
Conductivity 23.31 
23.2.9 Others 23.32 
23.3 INPUT ISSUES 23.32 
23.4 SENSOR GLOSSARY 23.37 
23.5 SUMMARY 23.38 
23.6 REFERENCES 23.39 
23.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 23.39 
23.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 23.40 
23.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 23.42 
24. CONTINUOUS ACTUATORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.1 
24.1 INTRODUCTION 24.1 
24.2 ELECTRIC MOTORS 24.1 
24.2.1 Basic Brushed DC Motors 24.3 
24.2.2 AC Motors 24.7 
24.2.3 Brushless DC Motors 24.15 
24.2.4 Stepper Motors 24.17 
24.2.5 Wound Field Motors 24.19 
24.3 HYDRAULICS 24.23 
24.4 OTHER SYSTEMS 24.24 
24.5 SUMMARY 24.25 
24.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 24.25 
24.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 24.26 
24.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 24.26 
25. CONTINUOUS CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.1 
25.1 INTRODUCTION 25.1 
page ix 
25.2 CONTROL OF LOGICAL ACTUATOR SYSTEMS 25.4 
25.3 CONTROL OF CONTINUOUS ACTUATOR SYSTEMS 25.5 
25.3.1 Block Diagrams 25.5 
25.3.2 Feedback Control Systems 25.6 
25.3.3 Proportional Controllers 25.8 
25.3.4 PID Control Systems 25.12 
25.4 DESIGN CASES 25.14 
25.4.1 Oven Temperature Control 25.14 
25.4.2 Water Tank Level Control 25.17 
25.5 SUMMARY 25.20 
25.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 25.20 
25.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 25.21 
25.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 25.26 
26. FUZZY LOGIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26.1 
26.1 INTRODUCTION 26.1 
26.2 COMMERCIAL CONTROLLERS 26.7 
26.3 REFERENCES 26.7 
26.4 SUMMARY 26.7 
26.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 26.8 
26.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 26.8 
26.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 26.8 
27. SERIAL COMMUNICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27.1 
27.1 INTRODUCTION 27.1 
27.2 SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS 27.2 
27.2.1 RS-232 27.5 
ASCII Functions 27.9 
27.3 PARALLEL COMMUNICATIONS 27.13 
27.4 DESIGN CASES 27.14 
27.4.1 PLC Interface To a Robot 27.14 
27.5 SUMMARY 27.15 
27.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 27.15 
27.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 27.16 
27.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 27.18 
28. NETWORKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.1 
28.1 INTRODUCTION 28.1 
28.1.1 Topology 28.2 
28.1.2 OSI Network Model 28.3 
28.1.3 Networking Hardware 28.5 
28.1.4 Control Network Issues 28.7 
28.2 NETWORK STANDARDS 28.8 
28.2.1 Devicenet 28.8 
page x 
28.2.2 CANbus 28.12 
28.2.3 Controlnet 28.13 
28.2.4 Ethernet 28.14 
28.2.5 Profibus 28.15 
28.2.6 Sercos 28.15 
28.3 PROPRIETARY NETWORKS 28.16 
28.3.1 Data Highway 28.16 
28.4 NETWORK COMPARISONS 28.20 
28.5 DESIGN CASES 28.22 
28.5.1 Devicenet 28.22 
28.6 SUMMARY 28.23 
28.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 28.23 
28.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 28.24 
28.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 28.28 
29. INTERNET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.1 
29.1 INTRODUCTION 29.1 
29.1.1 Computer Addresses 29.2 
IPV6 29.3 
29.1.2 Phone Lines 29.3 
29.1.3 Mail Transfer Protocols 29.3 
29.1.4 FTP - File Transfer Protocol 29.4 
29.1.5 HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol 29.4 
29.1.6 Novell 29.4 
29.1.7 Security 29.5 
Firewall 29.5 
IP Masquerading 29.5 
29.1.8 HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language 29.5 
29.1.9 URLs 29.6 
29.1.10 Encryption 29.6 
29.1.11 Compression 29.7 
29.1.12 Clients and Servers 29.7 
29.1.13 Java 29.9 
29.1.14 Javascript 29.9 
29.1.15 CGI 29.9 
29.1.16 ActiveX 29.9 
29.1.17 Graphics 29.10 
29.2 DESIGN CASES 29.10 
29.2.1 Remote Monitoring System 29.10 
29.3 SUMMARY 29.11 
29.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 29.11 
29.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 29.11 
29.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 29.11 
30. HUMANMACHINE INTERFACES (HMI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30.1 
page xi 
30.1 INTRODUCTION 30.1 
30.2 HMI/MMI DESIGN 30.2 
30.3 DESIGN CASES 30.3 
30.4 SUMMARY 30.3 
30.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 30.4 
30.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 30.4 
30.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 30.4 
31. ELECTRICAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION . . . . . . . . . . 31.1 
31.1 INTRODUCTION 31.1 
31.2 ELECTRICAL WIRING DIAGRAMS 31.1 
31.2.1 Selecting Voltages 31.8 
31.2.2 Grounding 31.9 
31.2.3 Wiring 31.12 
31.2.4 Suppressors 31.13 
31.2.5 PLC Enclosures 31.14 
31.2.6 Wire and Cable Grouping 31.16 
31.3 FAIL-SAFE DESIGN 31.17 
31.4 SAFETY RULES SUMMARY 31.18 
31.5 REFERENCES 31.20 
31.6 SUMMARY 31.20 
31.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 31.20 
31.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 31.20 
31.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 31.20 
32. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.1 
32.1 INTRODUCTION 32.1 
32.1.1 Fail Safe Design 32.1 
32.2 DEBUGGING 32.2 
32.2.1 Troubleshooting 32.3 
32.2.2 Forcing 32.3 
32.3 PROCESS MODELLING 32.3 
32.4 PROGRAMMING FOR LARGE SYSTEMS 32.8 
32.4.1 Developing a Program Structure 32.8 
32.4.2 Program Verification and Simulation 32.11 
32.5 DOCUMENTATION 32.12 
32.6 COMMISIONING 32.20 
32.7 REFERENCES 32.20 
32.8 SUMMARY 32.21 
32.9 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 32.21 
32.10 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 32.21 
32.11 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 32.21 
33. SELECTING A PLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33.1 
page xii 
33.1 INTRODUCTION 33.1 
33.2 SPECIAL I/O MODULES 33.6 
33.3 SUMMARY 33.9 
33.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 33.10 
33.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS 33.10 
33.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS 33.10 
34. FUNCTION REFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34.1 
34.1 FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS 34.1 
34.1.1 General Functions 34.1 
34.1.2 Program Control 34.3 
34.1.3 Timers and Counters 34.5 
34.1.4 Compare 34.10 
34.1.5 Calculation and Conversion 34.14 
34.1.6 Logical 34.20 
34.1.7 Move 34.21 
34.1.8 File 34.22 
34.1.9 List 34.27 
34.1.10 Program Control 34.30 
34.1.11 Advanced Input/Output 34.34 
34.1.12 String 34.37 
34.2 DATA TYPES 34.42 
35. COMBINED GLOSSARY OF TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35.1 
35.1 A 35.1 
35.2 B 35.2 
35.3 C 35.5 
35.4 D 35.9 
35.5 E 35.11 
35.6 F 35.12 
35.7 G 35.13 
35.8 H 35.14 
35.9 I 35.14 
35.10 J 35.16 
35.11 K 35.16 
35.12 L 35.16 
35.13 M 35.17 
35.14 N 35.19 
35.15 O 35.20 
35.16 P 35.21 
35.17 Q 35.23 
35.18 R 35.23 
35.19 S 35.25 
35.20 T 35.27 
page xiii 
35.21 U 35.28 
35.22 V 35.29 
35.23 W 35.29 
35.24 X 35.30 
35.25 Y 35.30 
35.26 Z 35.30 
36. PLC REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36.1 
36.1 SUPPLIERS 36.1 
36.2 PROFESSIONAL INTEREST GROUPS 36.2 
36.3 PLC/DISCRETE CONTROL REFERENCES 36.2 
37. GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37.1 
37.1 PREAMBLE 37.1 
37.2 APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS 37.1 
37.3 VERBATIM COPYING 37.2 
37.4 COPYING IN QUANTITY 37.3 
37.5 MODIFICATIONS 37.3 
37.6 COMBINING DOCUMENTS 37.5 
37.7 COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS 37.5 
37.8 AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS 37.6 
37.9 TRANSLATION 37.6 
37.10 TERMINATION 37.6 
37.11 FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE 37.6 
37.12 How to use this License for your documents 37.7 

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